The Vanquished: Why the First World War Failed to End PDF


The Vanquished: Why the First World War Failed to End A Times Literary Supplement Best Book of An epic, groundbreaking account of the ethnic and state violence that followed the end of World War I conflicts that would shape the course of the twentieth centuryFor the Western Allies, November has always been a solemn date the end of fighting that had destroyed a generation, but also a vindication of a terrible sacrifice with the total collapse of the principal enemies the German Empire, Austria Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire But for much of the rest of Europe this was a day with no meaning, as a continuing, nightmarish series of conflicts engulfed country after countryIn The Vanquished, a highly original and gripping work of history, Robert Gerwarth asks us to think again about the true legacy of the First World War In large part it was not the fighting on the Western Front that proved so ruinous to Europe s future, but the devastating aftermath, as countries on both sides of the original conflict were savaged by revolutions, pogroms, mass expulsions, and further major military clashes In the years immediately after the armistice, millions would die across central, eastern, and southeastern Europe before the Soviet Union and a series of rickety and exhausted small new states would come into being It was here, in the ruins of Europe, that extreme ideologies such as fascism would take shape and ultimately emerge triumphantAs absorbing in its drama as it is unsettling in its analysis, The Vanquished is destined to transform our understanding of not just the First World War but the twentieth century as a whole ✅ Book Lover PDF / Epub ⚣ Author Jennifer Kaufman – Kleankitchen.co.uk groundbreaking account of the ethnic and state violence that followed the end of World War I conflicts that would shape the course of the twentieth centuryFor the Western Allies [Ebook] ➧ Secret Delivery / Her 24-Hour Protector ➭ Delores Fossen – Kleankitchen.co.uk November has always been a solemn date the end of fighting that had destroyed a generation ❮PDF❯ ❤ Kholodovs Last Mistress Author Kate Hewitt – Kleankitchen.co.uk but also a vindication of a terrible sacrifice with the total collapse of the principal enemies the German Empire [Télécharger] ➵ Wicked Sinner (Regency Sinners 7) Auteur Carole Mortimer – Kleankitchen.co.uk Austria Hungary ❰Epub❯ ➞ If the Stiletto Fits... Author Wendy Etherington – Kleankitchen.co.uk and the Ottoman Empire But for much of the rest of Europe this was a day with no meaning ❮Read❯ ➸ What Phoebe Wants (Harlequin Flipside, ➻ Author Cindi Myers – Kleankitchen.co.uk as a continuing ❰PDF❯ ❤ Ruthlessly Royal (Self-Made Millionaires Author Robyn Donald – Kleankitchen.co.uk nightmarish series of conflicts engulfed country after countryIn The Vanquished [PDF / Epub] ☉ An Amish Family Christmas Author Marta Perry – Kleankitchen.co.uk a highly original and gripping work of history ☁ [PDF / Epub] ☀ Interrupted Lullaby By Dana R. Lynn ✎ – Kleankitchen.co.uk Robert Gerwarth asks us to think again about the true legacy of the First World War In large part it was not the fighting on the Western Front that proved so ruinous to Europe s future [PDF / Epub] ☁ Gift-Wrapped Governess By Sophia James – Kleankitchen.co.uk but the devastating aftermath ➯ [Read] ➫ Vows of Revenge By Dani Collins ➻ – Kleankitchen.co.uk as countries on both sides of the original conflict were savaged by revolutions ❰Read❯ ➪ Not a Fairy Tale Author Romy Sommer – Kleankitchen.co.uk pogroms ❰Download❯ ➾ The Midwife and the Single Dad Author Gill Sanderson – Kleankitchen.co.uk mass expulsions ❰Read❯ ➪ Small-Town Billionaire Author Renee Andrews – Kleankitchen.co.uk and further major military clashes In the years immediately after the armistice [Ebook] ➥ A Convenient Marriage By Maggie Cox – Kleankitchen.co.uk millions would die across central [EPUB] ✶ A French Pirouette By Jennifer Bohnet – Kleankitchen.co.uk eastern [PDF / Epub] ✩ The Doctors Courageous Bride ☉ Dianne Drake – Kleankitchen.co.uk and southeastern Europe before the Soviet Union and a series of rickety and exhausted small new states would come into being It was here [PDF / Epub] ✅ The Demure Miss Manning By Amanda McCabe – Kleankitchen.co.uk in the ruins of Europe ❄ [EPUB] ✼ Her Christmas Guardian Protective Instincts By Shirlee McCoy ➝ – Kleankitchen.co.uk that extreme ideologies such as fascism would take shape and ultimately emerge triumphantAs absorbing in its drama as it is unsettling in its analysis ❮EPUB❯ ❄ The Singalong Society for Singletons ✿ Author Katey Lovell – Kleankitchen.co.uk The Vanquished is destined to transform our understanding of not just the First World War but the twentieth century as a whole This book was interesting, and very readablebut also very incoherent I mean that in the sense of, each of the chapters was good in isolation, but he had a tendency to go back and regurgitate stuff almost whole cloth from previous chapters, not to mention a LOT of chronological time jumping back and forth that made it hard to follow the thread of his narrative I m still not entirely sure what his overarching point was, because it never seemed to really build up to anything His conclusion, s This book was interesting, and very readablebut also very incoherent I mean that in the sense of, each of the chapters was good in isolation, but he had a tendency to go back and regurgitate stuff almost whole cloth from previous chapters, not to mention a LOT of chronological time jumping back and forth that made it hard to follow the thread of his narrative I m still not entirely sure what his overarching point was, because it never seemed to really build up to anything His conclusion, such as it was, seemed fairly pedestrian discharged soldiers couldn t adapt to peacetime life, defeated states couldn t accept the territorial revisions of Versailles and I m not sure we really needed another book to defend that conclusion.I did like the discussions on interwar areas that tend to be neglected Hungary and Bulgaria both got decent facetime explaining their problems I would ve liked to seeon Finland and Italy, both of whom got shockingly glossed over treatments on their postwar problems I think the Finnish civil war, which I didn t even know had happened, got about a page and a half, if that Having finished this exceptional book, I now realise that my rather lazy and Anglo centric view of the period following WW1, as a relatively peaceful era, was completely wide of the mark Robert Gerwarth brilliantly describes how for many countries and regions, the Armistice on 11 November 1918, was just the start of fiveyears of violence and upheaval.Four empires broke up in the aftermath of WW1 Austria Hungary, Germany, tsarist Russia and the Ottoman empire The Vanquished Why the Fir Having finished this exceptional book, I now realise that my rather lazy and Anglo centric view of the period following WW1, as a relatively peaceful era, was completely wide of the mark Robert Gerwarth brilliantly describes how for many countries and regions, the Armistice on 11 November 1918, was just the start of fiveyears of violence and upheaval.Four empires broke up in the aftermath of WW1 Austria Hungary, Germany, tsarist Russia and the Ottoman empire The Vanquished Why the First World War Failed to End is a fast paced, fluent and authoritative analysis of the turmoil in the territories of the four shattered empires, as well as in Greece and Italy Civil wars overlapped with revolutions, counter revolutions and border conflicts between emerging states, many sowing the seeds for WW2 This turmoil was frequently characterised by extreme violence and political disorder, with racial and religious minorities often sufferingthan most The Vanquished Why the First World War Failed to End makes a convincing and compelling argument thatthe story of Europe in the years between 1917 and 1923 is crucial for understanding the cycles of violence that characterised the continent s 20th century4 5 Page 169 my book Joseph P RothNationalism is the new religion This book demonstrates convincingly, how November 11 1918 was not the end of war particularly in Germany, and Eastern and Central Europe And the nature of war changed it becameethnic based With the dissolution of the Austro Hungarian Empire at war s end into several nation states there was a violent nationalistic struggle This was also encouraged by Woodrow Wilson s 14 Points which inspired the formation of new nation Page 169 my book Joseph P RothNationalism is the new religion This book demonstrates convincingly, how November 11 1918 was not the end of war particularly in Germany, and Eastern and Central Europe And the nature of war changed it becameethnic based With the dissolution of the Austro Hungarian Empire at war s end into several nation states there was a violent nationalistic struggle This was also encouraged by Woodrow Wilson s 14 Points which inspired the formation of new nations, particularly Point 10 The people of Austria Hungary should be accorded the freest opportunity to autonomous development Victimhood, too became a significant theme in all the defeated Central Powers Germany, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Austria Italy, too, felt victimized Italy was not rewarded territories that the Allies had earlier promised for aligning with them The extreme violence and upheavals of the Russian Revolution made all the new nations tremble with fear of the spread of Bolshevism To counter potential Bolshevik threats many countries became right wing dictatorships like Poland, Italy and Hungary Of these perceived threats scapegoats were the Jews this would culminate in the Holocaust.Page 122 23 Germany Freikorps The paramilitary groups were bastions of soldierly camaraderie and order in what the activist perceived as a hostile world of democratic egalitarianism and communist internationalism They perceived themselves as the nucleus of a new society of warriors, representing both the eternal values of the nation and new authoritarian concepts for a state in which the nation could thrive.Page 254 Entire countries in Central and Eastern Europe were to be purged of those deemed racially or politically undesirable The distinction between civilians and combatants, already blurred during the First World War, completely vanished during 1918 1923.This book traces the origins of the Second World War to the nation ethnic cleansing that took place from 1917 to 1923 After, there was a brief respite then it started all over again as the democracies lost ground and courage and the dictatorships built up their power.Note that this book has 267 pages of actual text, with many pages devoted to footnotes and bibliography The maps were inadequate cities and regions mentioned were not on the maps I used google map The war to end all wars as the Great War later the First World War World War One was contemporarily described and indeed thought of but as we know today with civil wars Spain and imperial quests Abyssinia Second Sino Japanese war in the 1930s, the Second World War, the Middle East, the Korean War, the end of Empires Dutch, British, French etc and many others stretching to the current day, the list of wars, conflicts and revolts is long and terribly costly in lives We now know that The war to end all wars as the Great War later the First World War World War One was contemporarily described and indeed thought of but as we know today with civil wars Spain and imperial quests Abyssinia Second Sino Japanese war in the 1930s, the Second World War, the Middle East, the Korean War, the end of Empires Dutch, British, French etc and many others stretching to the current day, the list of wars, conflicts and revolts is long and terribly costly in lives We now know that the 1914 18 war ushered in considerable change of not just Europe s boundaries but also those in the near middle East and further afield changes to monarchies and political systems legal treaty arrangements and, importantly alongside these, changes in people s aspirations, aims and the approaches to achieve or stymie these Many who read the 1914 1919 to Versailles period and indeed prior appreciate the complexity of the period s politics and monarchies, technical and social changes and how these influenced the war, its aims, alliances, strategies, tactics and outcomes that led to WWII Those who read WWII also have this baseline of how we get to Poland in 1939 and indeed beyond with ramifications still to be seen and felt from both wars even into 2019At a top level it is understood and well known that the large old empires such as Romanov, Hapsburg, Ottoman and Wilhelminian died in or by 1919 What perhaps readers of the period and certainly myself here don t quite appreciate is the detail and multitudinous level of conflict of the post war period from 1917 Russian revolution as well as worries such as the French mutiny to the years into 1923, where civil wars surge, anarchy rises and those aforementioned empires flail and crash leading to eventurmoil, death murder as well in battle and destruction Alongside Versailles and other end of wat treaties new models of politics rise and fall and rise again adapting to or taking advantage of circumstances where they settle scores and seek to meet objectives negotiated or not treated or not Simply put the guns never fell silent on 11th November 1918 of if they did in some areas they continued or started afresh in many others.Professor Gerwarth has weaved these complexities of nations especially the vanquished , peoples, ethnicities, aims, objectives and politics together in such an informative read that leaves the reader in no doubt that his subtitle to The Vanquished ofWhy The First World War Failed To Endis case proven.Where the author excels is his ability to clearly show the key points and players with clarity whilst linking and weaving events from other nations or areas to the current narrative I never lost track or sight of national events nor the events surrounding these both locally and wider The Russian civil war, Poland, Turkey, Italy and of course Germany are well covered but that is not to say that other defeated nations are not The complexity of the Balkans and southern Europe, the old Ottoman Empire and the middle East are all given time and page space In fact so lucid, and dare I say enjoyable I appreciate a difficult word to use when one is reading of people being killed is this book that I would happily have seen it extended by 300pages just to get evendetail on Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania, Greece, Armenia, Yugoslavia, the Slav Czech nations.The book benefits from some 90 pages of notes and a solid possibly near exhaustive bibliography sources listing The photos in my copy that was a Penguin paperback from 2017, had some fine black and white photos and clear and very welcome maps.All in all a fine read that shows Professor Gerwarth s skill and knowledge as a writer of this period As he says in his final sentences in his EpilogueIt is not without grim historical irony that the centenary of the Great War was accompanied by civil war in Syria and Iraq, revolution in Egypt and violent clashes between Jews and Arabs over the Palestinian question, as if to offer proof that at least some of the issues raised but not solved by the Great War and its immediate aftermath are still with us today

    ✅ Book Lover PDF / Epub ⚣ Author Jennifer Kaufman – Kleankitchen.co.uk groundbreaking account of the ethnic and state violence that followed the end of World War I conflicts that would shape the course of the twentieth centuryFor the Western Allies [Ebook] ➧ Secret Delivery / Her 24-Hour Protector ➭ Delores Fossen – Kleankitchen.co.uk November has always been a solemn date the end of fighting that had destroyed a generation ❮PDF❯ ❤ Kholodovs Last Mistress Author Kate Hewitt – Kleankitchen.co.uk but also a vindication of a terrible sacrifice with the total collapse of the principal enemies the German Empire [Télécharger] ➵ Wicked Sinner (Regency Sinners 7) Auteur Carole Mortimer – Kleankitchen.co.uk Austria Hungary ❰Epub❯ ➞ If the Stiletto Fits... Author Wendy Etherington – Kleankitchen.co.uk and the Ottoman Empire But for much of the rest of Europe this was a day with no meaning ❮Read❯ ➸ What Phoebe Wants (Harlequin Flipside, ➻ Author Cindi Myers – Kleankitchen.co.uk as a continuing ❰PDF❯ ❤ Ruthlessly Royal (Self-Made Millionaires Author Robyn Donald – Kleankitchen.co.uk nightmarish series of conflicts engulfed country after countryIn The Vanquished [PDF / Epub] ☉ An Amish Family Christmas Author Marta Perry – Kleankitchen.co.uk a highly original and gripping work of history ☁ [PDF / Epub] ☀ Interrupted Lullaby By Dana R. Lynn ✎ – Kleankitchen.co.uk Robert Gerwarth asks us to think again about the true legacy of the First World War In large part it was not the fighting on the Western Front that proved so ruinous to Europe s future [PDF / Epub] ☁ Gift-Wrapped Governess By Sophia James – Kleankitchen.co.uk but the devastating aftermath ➯ [Read] ➫ Vows of Revenge By Dani Collins ➻ – Kleankitchen.co.uk as countries on both sides of the original conflict were savaged by revolutions ❰Read❯ ➪ Not a Fairy Tale Author Romy Sommer – Kleankitchen.co.uk pogroms ❰Download❯ ➾ The Midwife and the Single Dad Author Gill Sanderson – Kleankitchen.co.uk mass expulsions ❰Read❯ ➪ Small-Town Billionaire Author Renee Andrews – Kleankitchen.co.uk and further major military clashes In the years immediately after the armistice [Ebook] ➥ A Convenient Marriage By Maggie Cox – Kleankitchen.co.uk millions would die across central [EPUB] ✶ A French Pirouette By Jennifer Bohnet – Kleankitchen.co.uk eastern [PDF / Epub] ✩ The Doctors Courageous Bride ☉ Dianne Drake – Kleankitchen.co.uk and southeastern Europe before the Soviet Union and a series of rickety and exhausted small new states would come into being It was here [PDF / Epub] ✅ The Demure Miss Manning By Amanda McCabe – Kleankitchen.co.uk in the ruins of Europe ❄ [EPUB] ✼ Her Christmas Guardian Protective Instincts By Shirlee McCoy ➝ – Kleankitchen.co.uk that extreme ideologies such as fascism would take shape and ultimately emerge triumphantAs absorbing in its drama as it is unsettling in its analysis ❮EPUB❯ ❄ The Singalong Society for Singletons ✿ Author Katey Lovell – Kleankitchen.co.uk The Vanquished is destined to transform our understanding of not just the First World War but the twentieth century as a whole This book was interesting, and very readablebut also very incoherent I mean that in the sense of, each of the chapters was good in isolation, but he had a tendency to go back and regurgitate stuff almost whole cloth from previous chapters, not to mention a LOT of chronological time jumping back and forth that made it hard to follow the thread of his narrative I m still not entirely sure what his overarching point was, because it never seemed to really build up to anything His conclusion, s This book was interesting, and very readablebut also very incoherent I mean that in the sense of, each of the chapters was good in isolation, but he had a tendency to go back and regurgitate stuff almost whole cloth from previous chapters, not to mention a LOT of chronological time jumping back and forth that made it hard to follow the thread of his narrative I m still not entirely sure what his overarching point was, because it never seemed to really build up to anything His conclusion, such as it was, seemed fairly pedestrian discharged soldiers couldn t adapt to peacetime life, defeated states couldn t accept the territorial revisions of Versailles and I m not sure we really needed another book to defend that conclusion.I did like the discussions on interwar areas that tend to be neglected Hungary and Bulgaria both got decent facetime explaining their problems I would ve liked to seeon Finland and Italy, both of whom got shockingly glossed over treatments on their postwar problems I think the Finnish civil war, which I didn t even know had happened, got about a page and a half, if that Having finished this exceptional book, I now realise that my rather lazy and Anglo centric view of the period following WW1, as a relatively peaceful era, was completely wide of the mark Robert Gerwarth brilliantly describes how for many countries and regions, the Armistice on 11 November 1918, was just the start of fiveyears of violence and upheaval.Four empires broke up in the aftermath of WW1 Austria Hungary, Germany, tsarist Russia and the Ottoman empire The Vanquished Why the Fir Having finished this exceptional book, I now realise that my rather lazy and Anglo centric view of the period following WW1, as a relatively peaceful era, was completely wide of the mark Robert Gerwarth brilliantly describes how for many countries and regions, the Armistice on 11 November 1918, was just the start of fiveyears of violence and upheaval.Four empires broke up in the aftermath of WW1 Austria Hungary, Germany, tsarist Russia and the Ottoman empire The Vanquished Why the First World War Failed to End is a fast paced, fluent and authoritative analysis of the turmoil in the territories of the four shattered empires, as well as in Greece and Italy Civil wars overlapped with revolutions, counter revolutions and border conflicts between emerging states, many sowing the seeds for WW2 This turmoil was frequently characterised by extreme violence and political disorder, with racial and religious minorities often sufferingthan most The Vanquished Why the First World War Failed to End makes a convincing and compelling argument thatthe story of Europe in the years between 1917 and 1923 is crucial for understanding the cycles of violence that characterised the continent s 20th century4 5 Page 169 my book Joseph P RothNationalism is the new religion This book demonstrates convincingly, how November 11 1918 was not the end of war particularly in Germany, and Eastern and Central Europe And the nature of war changed it becameethnic based With the dissolution of the Austro Hungarian Empire at war s end into several nation states there was a violent nationalistic struggle This was also encouraged by Woodrow Wilson s 14 Points which inspired the formation of new nation Page 169 my book Joseph P RothNationalism is the new religion This book demonstrates convincingly, how November 11 1918 was not the end of war particularly in Germany, and Eastern and Central Europe And the nature of war changed it becameethnic based With the dissolution of the Austro Hungarian Empire at war s end into several nation states there was a violent nationalistic struggle This was also encouraged by Woodrow Wilson s 14 Points which inspired the formation of new nations, particularly Point 10 The people of Austria Hungary should be accorded the freest opportunity to autonomous development Victimhood, too became a significant theme in all the defeated Central Powers Germany, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Austria Italy, too, felt victimized Italy was not rewarded territories that the Allies had earlier promised for aligning with them The extreme violence and upheavals of the Russian Revolution made all the new nations tremble with fear of the spread of Bolshevism To counter potential Bolshevik threats many countries became right wing dictatorships like Poland, Italy and Hungary Of these perceived threats scapegoats were the Jews this would culminate in the Holocaust.Page 122 23 Germany Freikorps The paramilitary groups were bastions of soldierly camaraderie and order in what the activist perceived as a hostile world of democratic egalitarianism and communist internationalism They perceived themselves as the nucleus of a new society of warriors, representing both the eternal values of the nation and new authoritarian concepts for a state in which the nation could thrive.Page 254 Entire countries in Central and Eastern Europe were to be purged of those deemed racially or politically undesirable The distinction between civilians and combatants, already blurred during the First World War, completely vanished during 1918 1923.This book traces the origins of the Second World War to the nation ethnic cleansing that took place from 1917 to 1923 After, there was a brief respite then it started all over again as the democracies lost ground and courage and the dictatorships built up their power.Note that this book has 267 pages of actual text, with many pages devoted to footnotes and bibliography The maps were inadequate cities and regions mentioned were not on the maps I used google map The war to end all wars as the Great War later the First World War World War One was contemporarily described and indeed thought of but as we know today with civil wars Spain and imperial quests Abyssinia Second Sino Japanese war in the 1930s, the Second World War, the Middle East, the Korean War, the end of Empires Dutch, British, French etc and many others stretching to the current day, the list of wars, conflicts and revolts is long and terribly costly in lives We now know that The war to end all wars as the Great War later the First World War World War One was contemporarily described and indeed thought of but as we know today with civil wars Spain and imperial quests Abyssinia Second Sino Japanese war in the 1930s, the Second World War, the Middle East, the Korean War, the end of Empires Dutch, British, French etc and many others stretching to the current day, the list of wars, conflicts and revolts is long and terribly costly in lives We now know that the 1914 18 war ushered in considerable change of not just Europe s boundaries but also those in the near middle East and further afield changes to monarchies and political systems legal treaty arrangements and, importantly alongside these, changes in people s aspirations, aims and the approaches to achieve or stymie these Many who read the 1914 1919 to Versailles period and indeed prior appreciate the complexity of the period s politics and monarchies, technical and social changes and how these influenced the war, its aims, alliances, strategies, tactics and outcomes that led to WWII Those who read WWII also have this baseline of how we get to Poland in 1939 and indeed beyond with ramifications still to be seen and felt from both wars even into 2019At a top level it is understood and well known that the large old empires such as Romanov, Hapsburg, Ottoman and Wilhelminian died in or by 1919 What perhaps readers of the period and certainly myself here don t quite appreciate is the detail and multitudinous level of conflict of the post war period from 1917 Russian revolution as well as worries such as the French mutiny to the years into 1923, where civil wars surge, anarchy rises and those aforementioned empires flail and crash leading to eventurmoil, death murder as well in battle and destruction Alongside Versailles and other end of wat treaties new models of politics rise and fall and rise again adapting to or taking advantage of circumstances where they settle scores and seek to meet objectives negotiated or not treated or not Simply put the guns never fell silent on 11th November 1918 of if they did in some areas they continued or started afresh in many others.Professor Gerwarth has weaved these complexities of nations especially the vanquished , peoples, ethnicities, aims, objectives and politics together in such an informative read that leaves the reader in no doubt that his subtitle to The Vanquished ofWhy The First World War Failed To Endis case proven.Where the author excels is his ability to clearly show the key points and players with clarity whilst linking and weaving events from other nations or areas to the current narrative I never lost track or sight of national events nor the events surrounding these both locally and wider The Russian civil war, Poland, Turkey, Italy and of course Germany are well covered but that is not to say that other defeated nations are not The complexity of the Balkans and southern Europe, the old Ottoman Empire and the middle East are all given time and page space In fact so lucid, and dare I say enjoyable I appreciate a difficult word to use when one is reading of people being killed is this book that I would happily have seen it extended by 300pages just to get evendetail on Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania, Greece, Armenia, Yugoslavia, the Slav Czech nations.The book benefits from some 90 pages of notes and a solid possibly near exhaustive bibliography sources listing The photos in my copy that was a Penguin paperback from 2017, had some fine black and white photos and clear and very welcome maps.All in all a fine read that shows Professor Gerwarth s skill and knowledge as a writer of this period As he says in his final sentences in his EpilogueIt is not without grim historical irony that the centenary of the Great War was accompanied by civil war in Syria and Iraq, revolution in Egypt and violent clashes between Jews and Arabs over the Palestinian question, as if to offer proof that at least some of the issues raised but not solved by the Great War and its immediate aftermath are still with us today"/>
  • Paperback
  • 446 pages
  • The Vanquished: Why the First World War Failed to End
  • Robert Gerwarth
  • English
  • 06 April 2017
  • 0374537186

About the Author: Robert Gerwarth

Robert Gerwarth is a professor of European history, with an emphasis on German history Since finishing a British Academy Postdoctoral Fellowship at Oxford, he has held fellowships at Princeton, Harvard, the NIOD Amsterdam and the Institute for Advanced Studies at the University of Western Australia.


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