On Rumors: How Falsehoods Spread, Why We Believe Them,


On Rumors: How Falsehoods Spread, Why We Believe Them, What Can Be Done This had GREAT potential Then the author threw it away by droning on in suppositions and hypotheticals Really Like there aren t enough real people believing completely ridiculous rumors that he could have used to make this interesting and engaging While essentially an essay, and interesting for the most part, that author fails to convince me of his conclusions Theinteresting and telling part is the discussion on the psychology of rumors, why people accept them, and why they are so difficult to refute The author then tries to discuss legal cases and statutes in which he implies that a softening of the First Amendment would be best for stopping the spread of falsehood, which I find troubling A quick read, but one to take withWhile essentially an essay, and interesting for the most part, that author fails to convince me of his conclusions Theinteresting and telling part is the discussion on the psychology of rumors, why people accept them, and why they are so difficult to refute The author then tries to discuss legal cases and statutes in which he implies that a softening of the First Amendment would be best for stopping the spread of falsehood, which I find troubling A quick read, but one to take withthan one grain of salt I was disappointed with this, because I expectinsights from Cass Sunstein The book does a good job of laying out the problems with counting on a marketplace of ideas to produce truth But the ideas of polarization by conversation, of confirmation bias, and other psychological concepts well demonstrated by experiment, are ideas I already knew about Sunstein s suggestions for changes to better balance chilling of free speech with deference against promulgating false rumors are somewhat I was disappointed with this, because I expectinsights from Cass Sunstein The book does a good job of laying out the problems with counting on a marketplace of ideas to produce truth But the ideas of polarization by conversation, of confirmation bias, and other psychological concepts well demonstrated by experiment, are ideas I already knew about Sunstein s suggestions for changes to better balance chilling of free speech with deference against promulgating false rumors are somewhat interesting, but seem too little address the problem I had hoped for I bought this book as, serendipitously I d been the victim of a rumour and was fascinated at how you could say something and it be taken in completely the wrong way Further that by addressing that rumour publicly only added fuel to flames We often think of those who spread rumours as being self interested and those who attempt to demise the reputation of another in an evil way Whilst this is sometimes the case we fail to understand the benefit that rumours give us we find out information I bought this book as, serendipitously I d been the victim of a rumour and was fascinated at how you could say something and it be taken in completely the wrong way Further that by addressing that rumour publicly only added fuel to flames We often think of those who spread rumours as being self interested and those who attempt to demise the reputation of another in an evil way Whilst this is sometimes the case we fail to understand the benefit that rumours give us we find out information about things and people that may ultimately benefit us if true and don t harm us if we find out they are indeed false Once one person states something and another takes this up and propagates it, it becomesbelievable, as why else would so many people be saying the same thing We often share what we have heard without checking the truth of every statement Shared falsehood have apparent respectability We are social animals and Sunstein outlines experiments in social psychology which demonstrate the phenomenon of our want to be liked and to be right and so we may pass rumours on for either of these reasons Sunstein aided my understanding in group polarisation and showed that our own biases blind us to another viewpoint and with discussion of the other side it only fixes usto our original stance Thus it is futile to address a falsehood against you, as you make a stronger case against yourself for those who believed it anyway those who believe you would not have believed the falsehood in the first place Similarly when trying to rationally argue your religious, political or such views to another it will only make themstrongly opposed to you Essentially Sunstein argues that there is nothing that can be done beside litigation against slander but this prohibits free speech and we all know how 1984 looked BOOK REVIEW SUNSTEIN, Cass, On Rumors How Falsehoods Spread, Why We Believe Them, and What Can Be DoneISBN 13 978 0691162508Why people believe rumors.This is a short, precisely 100 page long essay on rumors, why falsehoods spread and why people believe them, written by a Harvard Law scholar The book dealswith cognitive social psychology than with law The author states that even sensible, smart people believe rumors He then discusses some examples and the harm caused, magnified as it BOOK REVIEW SUNSTEIN, Cass, On Rumors How Falsehoods Spread, Why We Believe Them, and What Can Be DoneISBN 13 978 0691162508Why people believe rumors.This is a short, precisely 100 page long essay on rumors, why falsehoods spread and why people believe them, written by a Harvard Law scholar The book dealswith cognitive social psychology than with law The author states that even sensible, smart people believe rumors He then discusses some examples and the harm caused, magnified as it is in the Internet Era, and asks why do rumors spread He discusses several factors, such as people s initial convictions the way human cognition works, our tendency to look for information that confirms what we already know and to discard information that contradicts it Rumor transmission is often associated with cascade effects and group polarization, concepts with which the author deals at somelenght He then notes the traditional way of fighting rumors, which is exposing people to different, sometimes informed, balanced views a model called marketplace of ideas does not always work, because of the phenomena of biased assimilation and polarization He discusses whether imposing liabilities on rumor propagators would be a good thing, because such risk of liability could also have a bad side effect of chilling out truth tellers from speaking their minds.It wasthan just a good book for me, because it also made me think and ask new questions That these new questions were not dealt with is what prevents me from qualifying the book as excellent.Sunstein s frequent use of the marketplace of ideas metaphor refers to concepts pertaining our cultural inheritance from Greek Stoicism the civilizatory power of rational communication, which shapes savage human beings into civilized persons, in the political arena as well in the marketplace However, this reference was not hinted at in the book When introduced to ancient Rome by Panaetius, these ideas engendered the Western ideas of free speech and due process, as well as our ways to deal with the vices which can poison free will in business dealings It was out of Stoic influence that Romans spoke of error when substantial and excusable as something voiding a contract Error and rumors are a repetition of errors is different from dolus , the intentional misleading of others into error.The systematic and intentional kindling of existing rumors in the marketplace, or inception of new ones, is called manipulation Sunstein diagnoses the problem he deals with as rumors I believe his diagnosis is lacking his problem is actually manipulation Thus, he does not anwer the question whether it would be a better solution to fight intentional manipulation, instead of curbing the sometimes, and somewhat, innocent propagation of rumors This is not Sunstein s fault he wrote the book he wanted to write which is a very good one , not the one I d wish to have read It is about rumors, not about manipulation I liked reading it, but I m still wanting acomprehensive treatment of the subject I loved Nudge, but this book is far from insightful I will save you some time read the title and subtitle, and spend half an hour thinking to yourself about the topic You ve now probably hit all the major points You can then skip the book and won t miss much, except some legal factoids near the end. Rumour Has ItA light read and essentially an abridged version of Sunstein s Going to Extremes How Like Minds Unite and Divide with the same basic arguments and examples I recommend the longer version 4 The goal is to explain why people accept false and destructive rumors and if we can protect ourselves against them The key concepts presented are social cascades and group polarization The former is about whether or not one s peer group already holds a particular pov towards the sub Rumour Has ItA light read and essentially an abridged version of Sunstein s Going to Extremes How Like Minds Unite and Divide with the same basic arguments and examples I recommend the longer version 4 The goal is to explain why people accept false and destructive rumors and if we can protect ourselves against them The key concepts presented are social cascades and group polarization The former is about whether or not one s peer group already holds a particular pov towards the subject Casstein suggests that there is a tipping point level of external endorsement, different for each of us, where notions previously thought foolish or marginals suddenly become not only acceptable but consequential.Once a rumour becomes entrenched there is a tendency to seek confirmation and filter out contradictory data and people, either by forming cliques or other associations This is especially easy to do on the Internet where simple search will lead one to communities of like minded people that can act as an echo chamber.Rumour propagators may in some cases be malicious, in other cases they are simply interested in drawing a crowd to present their case where damage to others is collateral and unintended Propagators may also believe themselves to be sincere and altruistic in bringing the rumour to the world s attention listeners may latch onto the sincerity and reputation of the speaker, enhanced by the size, membership or credentials of other members of the community as justification for accepting false or misleading information Solidarity leads to conformity andtightly held views In extreme case cases individuals become progressively radicalized to the point where aggressive action becomes a real possibility, and dominates personal behaviour.As a model of how we accept, process and internalize information the theory is not bad, but while we would hope for some insight as to whether a particular rumour is true or false Sunstein admits to not having an answer In my parent s generation there were voices of authority that people would respect in order to ascertain which beliefs were normalative and acceptable a chilling effect on fringe ideas which Sunstein cautions is not always bad And where one might place hope in Justice Brandeis s dictum that sunlight and a free society is the best disinfectant for falsehood, Sunstein worries that this is no guarantee as people do assimilate argumentation incompletely with an emotional bias.Compared to Extremes what the book lacks is an index, footnotes pointing to Sunstein s sources and the latter chapters on social movements If all you are interested in are the ideas or if you are a teacher and your target audience is middle or high school students, pick this one, which IMV is easy, accessible and brief Otherwise get Extremes Both would be unnecessary Many of us are being misled Claiming to know the pals of presidential aspirants, dark secrets about public officials, and hidden causes of the current economic crisis, those who spread rumors know precisely what they are doing They are sometimes able to derail political candidates, injure companies and reputations, even damage democratic governance And in the era of the Internet, they know about manipulating the mechanics of false rumors social cascades, group polarization, and biased assimilation than you do They also know that the presumed correctives publishing balanced information, issuing corrections, and trusting to the marketplace of ideas do not always work A pioneer in the effort to design regulation around the ways people behave The Wall Street Journal , Cass R Sunstein uses examples from the real world and from behavioral studies to explain why certain rumors spread like wildfire and what we can do to avoid being misled ❮Reading❯ ➸ Gender in Psychoanalytic Space Author Muriel Dimen – Kleankitchen.co.uk dark secrets about public officials [Download] ➽ Insight and Interpretation ➺ Roy Schafer – Kleankitchen.co.uk and hidden causes of the current economic crisis [EPUB] ✵ Good People in an Evil Time Author Svetlana Broz – Kleankitchen.co.uk those who spread rumors know precisely what they are doing They are sometimes able to derail political candidates [Read] ➵ On a Day Like This ➼ Peter Stamm – Kleankitchen.co.uk injure companies and reputations ⚦ [PDF] ✎ Heart to Start By Derek Handley ✶ – Kleankitchen.co.uk even damage democratic governance And in the era of the Internet [PDF / Epub] ☉ Light without Fire By Scott Korb – Kleankitchen.co.uk they know about manipulating the mechanics of false rumors social cascades [Epub] ❧ Secrecy ➛ Rupert Thomson – Kleankitchen.co.uk group polarization [BOOKS] ✸ The Silence and the Roar ⚦ Nihad Sirees – Kleankitchen.co.uk and biased assimilation than you do They also know that the presumed correctives publishing balanced information ❃ Hard Country kindle Epub ❧ Author Robin Robilliard – Kleankitchen.co.uk issuing corrections ❰Reading❯ ➶ The Whale Rider Author Witi Ihimaera – Kleankitchen.co.uk and trusting to the marketplace of ideas do not always work A pioneer in the effort to design regulation around the ways people behave The Wall Street Journal [PDF / Epub] ★ The Impossible David Lynch By Todd McGowan – Kleankitchen.co.uk Cass R Sunstein uses examples from the real world and from behavioral studies to explain why certain rumors spread like wildfire and what we can do to avoid being misled A lightweight quick read view spoiler how quick I read all of it during a dentist visit to have a crown fitted hide spoiler on the state of cognitive research into bias and error correction as of the 2008 election For anyone reading this in the future meaning now it is difficult to gainsay any of the warnings Sunstein draws from his source studies initial bias predicts outcomes, the double down phenomenon, the innate tendency of people to discount evidence that contradicts their o A lightweight quick read view spoiler how quick I read all of it during a dentist visit to have a crown fitted hide spoiler on the state of cognitive research into bias and error correction as of the 2008 election For anyone reading this in the future meaning now it is difficult to gainsay any of the warnings Sunstein draws from his source studies initial bias predicts outcomes, the double down phenomenon, the innate tendency of people to discount evidence that contradicts their opinions and how the explosion of social media has created self perpetuating ecosystems of opinion, since this pretty accurately sums up the hellscape that we inhabit in this Year of Our Lord 2019 What Sunstein can t do is suggestthan a few pages of be nice to each other and stay open minded cures to this problem Some of it he argues is self healing, as demonstrated by the demise of the Nigerian Prince scams of the 2000s, but he misses the problem that as users becomesophisticated so do the scams It is an arms race where the perfect and most rational user of social media is never the target The lowest hanging fruit will always be those already predisposed to believe the lie This has always been true, the big bang for the buck when it comes to lies is to hunt out the gullible, the desperate, and the aged As the old adage has it, an entertaining lie will circle the globe in the time it takes for the truth to tie its shoelaces This is not a new problem, and Sunstein has no new ideas This is a short 100 pages book on the spread of rumors, a most timely subject The author covers things like information cascades, how people s previous opinions and knowledge affects their willingness to accept and spread rumors Sunstein presents us with the slightly discouraging fact, that when people have very strong prior opinions, presenting balanced evidence will push peoplestrongly in the direction of their previous opinions However, with people less committed this need not be a This is a short 100 pages book on the spread of rumors, a most timely subject The author covers things like information cascades, how people s previous opinions and knowledge affects their willingness to accept and spread rumors Sunstein presents us with the slightly discouraging fact, that when people have very strong prior opinions, presenting balanced evidence will push peoplestrongly in the direction of their previous opinions However, with people less committed this need not be a problem, and the problem can be overcome if somebody of their own tribe denounces a rumor.The book was initially written in 2008, prior to Sunstein assuming a position in the Obama administration This edition contains an afterword, written in 2013 Sunstein reflects on his learnings from his time in Washington DC, noting that he got to see be the subject of the strategic use of rumors However, he notices that there is also good news, as elected officials are almost always generous and courteous, and within the executive branch, we were not much moved by rumors This was the verdict in 2013.The book is most timely, and should help understand the spread of information and rumors, and what can be done about it A good read for anyone aspring to being an active citizen

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